Most DNA is found in the nucleus of cells, but some DNA is found in the mitochondria, and this DNA is called mtDNA.
Within DNA, the bases then pair together to form what are known as base pairs.
The basic structure defined by Watson and Crick that remains includes the fact that DNA is a double-stranded helix, with the two strands connected by hydrogen bonds, that most DNA double helices are right-handed, the DNA double helix is anti-parallel and that not only are the base pairs connect via hydrogen bonding, but the outer edges are exposed and available for hydrogen bonding also.
There has been a lot of research into the Human genome in the last 2 decades, with the Human Genome Project setting themselves the ambitious task of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.
Human DNA in total consists of around 3,000,000,000 bases, and if you were to stretch the DNA from its helix form into 1 long piece of string, the DNA would stretch 10 billion miles.
Around 2% of DNA is made up of genes, genes can be defined as the fundamental units of inheritance, and certain portions of DNA contain the information needed by cells to live, and it is the genes that are responsible for our appearance, and the characteristics we share with parents, siblings, and in some cases identical twins.
DNA is an incredibly robust storage system, as Scientists have been able to extract DNA from a wooly mammoth, an animal that became extinct around 4,000 years ago.
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